Works Consulted

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    Abbattista, Guido. "European Encounters in the Age of Expansion - EGO." EGO. N.p., 24 Jan. 2011. Web. 02 Mar. 2014.

    Blalock, Billie. "Causes of European Exploration and the Columbian Exchange." YouTube. YouTube, 06 July 2013. Web. 09 Mar. 2014.

    Abbott, Philip. The Exemplary Presidency: Franklin D. Roosevelt and the American Political Tradition. Amherst: U of Massachusetts, 1990. Print.

    Tells about FDR's time as president and all of his accomplishments. Gives a summary of each major decision made in each of his presidential terms.

    Aber, James S. "Brief History of Maps and Cartography." Academic Emporia. N.p., 2008. Web. 6 Mar. 2014.

    This source discussed the history of maps and cartography, and also provided some details about map accuracy during the Age of Exploration.

    Adamson, John. "Onwards Christian Soldiers the Recapture of Jerusalem by the First Crusade was Achieved through Love of God Not of Plunder." The Sunday Telegraph: 13. Feb 22 2004. ProQuest. Web. 4 Feb. 2015.

    " African Americans." Word Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples. April 2009. Web.

    This article gave information about racist problems in the 90s in America.

    "African Americans in Slavery." NPS.gov. United States Government, 8 Feb. 2001. Web. 11 Mar. 2014.

    This government article describes where slaves originated from and how they got to America. The types of labor and the importance of cotton is detailed in this article. The insight provided includes valuable information that is from a trusted source.

    Aiken, George L., George C. Howard, Thomas Laurence. Riis, and Harriet Beecher Stowe. Uncle Tom's Cabin: (1852) . New York: Garland, 1994. Print.

    Allen, William Francis, Charles Pickard Ware, and Lucy McKim Garrison. Slave Songs of the United States. New York: A. Simpson, 1867.

    "Air Raid on Pearl Harbor." Today in History. The Library of Congress, 8 Oct. 2010. Web. 04 June 2014.

    Allen, Gardner Weld. Our Navy and the Barbary Corsairs. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin. 1905.

    Once America was no longer under the protection of the Treaty of Alliance, American ships began to be the target of North African Barbary States who would enslave and ransom the crew.

    An American Composer. "Symphony No. 9 ~ Beethoven." On-line Video. Youtube. Youtube. Dec 22, 2012. Web. Feb 23, 2015.

    "American Experience: TV's Most-watched History Series." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2014.

    I like this website because it gives reasons for the United States going to the Black Hills. It explains the thoughts of Grant and how he was pressured to do what he did.

    "American Railroad Journal, and General Advertiser for Railroads, Canals, Steamboats, Machinery, and Mines." Google Books. D.K. Minor, 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 05 Feb. 2015.

    "Anaesthesia and Anaesthetics in Modern Surgical Medicine." Anaesthesia and Anaesthetics in Modern Surgical Medicine. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Mar. 2014.

    Anderson, Erik. "Pearl Harbor - The Bombing - Facts." Pearl Harbor - The Bombing - Facts. Web. 04 June 2014.

    Anderson, Fred. The War That Made America: A Short History of the French and Indian War. New York: Viking, 2005. Print.

    Anderson, Leigh. "Opium and Heroin." Opium Uses, Addiction Treatment, Side Effects and Interactions- Drugs.com. Drugs.com, n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2014.

    Anderson, Walt. Evolution Isn't What It Used to Be: The Augmented Animal and the Whole Wired World. New York: W.H. Freeman, 1996. Print.

    Clark, Mary E. In Search of Human Nature. London: Routledge, 2002.

    "Andrew Jackson: An Introduction." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 02 Mar. 2014.

    This video I found to be great and am going to use it in my presentation. The video talked about topics in my lightning talk along with topics that I was not able to talk about.

    Andrews, William. "North American Slave Narratives." Documenting the American South. 2004. 24 Feb. 2014. Web.

    This article talks about the importance of reading documents from slaves because it gives an accurate view to what it was like.

    Angus TV. "I am Angus: The History of Barbed Wire." On-Line Video. YouTube. YouTube. 21 Nov. 2011. Web.

    Aries, Philippe. Centuries of Childhood: A Social History of Family Life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1962. Print.

    Arney, June. "Jamestown History is Rewritten Archaeology: One Man's Refusal to Accept Conventional Thinking Results in Finding Traces of the First Settlement in Virginia, a Fort Long thought to have been Lost to the Ravages of the Time and the James River." The Sun (27 Nov. 1997),Final: News 2.A. ProQuest Newstand. Web. 7 Feb. 2015.

    ASHP CML. "Doing As They Can: Slave Life in the American South." Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 23 Mar. 2011. Web. 9 Mar. 2014.

    This is a short narrative of a supposed slave in the south who talked about slaves secretly disobeying masters and learning to keep quiet.

    Attenborough, David, Susan Owens, Martin Clayton, and Rea Alexandtratos. Amazing Rare Things. N.p.: Kales Press, 2009. Google Books. Web. 2 Feb. 2014.

    This source gave detailed information on the development of art during the Age of Discovery, particularly concerning animals of the New World.

    "Avalon Project - British-American Diplomacy: Treaty of Ghent; 1814." Avalon Project - British-American Diplomacy: Treaty of Ghent; 1814. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2015.

    "Avalon Project - President Jackson's Veto Message Regarding the Bank of the United States; July 10, 1832." Avalon Project - President Jackson's Veto Message Regarding the Bank of the United States; July 10, 1832. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2014.

    This website is from Yale's law school, which is in the top two best law schools in the nation. It talked, in detail about the national bank veto by Andrew Jackson himself.





The Anglo-Zanzibar War is the shortest on record; lasting just 38 minutes on 27 August 1896. During that time, about 500 of the Sultan Khalid bin Barghash's forces were killed. Only one British soldier was injured.

Photo Caption: Richard Dorsey Mohun's photograph of the Zanzibar Sultanate.