Works Consulted

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    Calvert, Monte A. The Mechanical Engineer in America, 1830-1910; Professional Cultures in Conflict. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1967. Print.

    Campbell, James. Slavery: Real People and Their Stories of Enslavement. D.K. Publishing, 2009. Print.

    This is a book compiled of stories from people who have faced enslavement.

    Carlson, Elof A. Mutation The History Of An Idea From Darwin To Genomics. Cold Spring Harbor: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2011. Print.

    This particular book was just to gain even more background information on Darwin and his theory.

    Carrol, Sean B. Remarkable Creatures Epic Adventures in the Search for the Origins of Species. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2009. Print.

    I found this particular book interesting because it talked a little about the adventures Darwin went through and some animals they encountered.

    Carter, Tim, and John Butt, eds. The Cambridge History of Seventeenth-Century Music. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Google Books. Web. 2 Feb. 2014.

    This source provided information about the history of music and the role of music during the Age of Discovery.

    Carey, Charles W. American Inventors, Entrepreneurs, and Business Visionaries. New York: Facts on File, 2002. Print.

    Case, Steven. "Andrew Jackson." Jackson, Andrew. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2014.

    Much like the other websites, it gave the background information, and touched on all the topics.

    "Center on Budget and Policy Priorities." A Constitutional Balanced Budget Amendment Threatens Great Economic Damage -. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2014.

    This article talks in detail about balancing the budget in todays time. It gives examples of what states have to do and if they are or are not doing this.

    Chaline, Eric. Fifty Machines That Changed the Course of History. Buffalo, NY: Firefly, 2012. Print.

    "Charles Darwin." Windows to the Universe. N.p., 2012. Web. 2 June 2014.

    This article helped me piece my Lightening Talk together with good information about Darwin.

    "Charles Darwin (1809-1882)." N.p., n.d. Web. 3 June 2014.

    I was trying to get as much background information I could on Charles Darwin, and this helped.

    "Charles Darwin and HMS Beagle." Royal Museums Greenwich. N.p., 2014. Web. 3 June 2014.

    I found another article that talked about the Beagle. This article went more in depth on the voyage.

    "Charles Darwin in the Galapagos." Galapagos Islands. N.p., 2014. Web. 3 June 2014.

    Gaining some background information on the Galapagos Islands was very helpful.

    Charles H. Wright Museum of African History. Charles H. Wright Museum of African History, n.d. Web. 09 Feb. 2015.

    "Chief Sitting Bull." Chief Sitting Bull. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2014.

    This source was good for looking at the death of Sitting Bull. It had quite a bit of information on his life, but I really didn't need to go into to much detail on his early life.

    "Child Labor in the Industrial Revolution." YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2015.

    Chiu, Herman B., and Andrew Taylor Kirk. "'Unlimited American Power': How Four California Newspapers Covered Chinese Labor And The Building Of The Transcontinental Railroad, 1865-1869." American Journalism 31.4 (2014): 507-524. Literary Reference Center. Web. 29 Jan. 2015.

    "Christopher Columbus Biography." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, 2014. Web. 08 Mar. 2014

    Ciniva Web Agency. "Jamestown settlement and Yorktown Victory Center: History of Jamestown". Jamestown settlement and Yorktown Victory Center. Nd. Jamestown-Yorktown Foundation. Web. 26 Jan. 2015.

    "Civil War Diseases." Civil War Medicine, Civil War Nurses. CivilWarAcademy.com, n.d. Web. 13 Mar. 2014.

    "Civil War Doctors, Civil War Nurses, Nurses of the Civil War." Civil War Doctors, Civil War Nurses, Nurses of the Civil War. TotalGettysburg.com, n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2014.

    "Civil War Rations: "Food"?" Visit-Gettysburg. Visit-Gettysburg.com, n.d. Web. 13 Mar. 2014.

    "Civil War Medicine." FrancisHistory85. Lee Foundation, n.d. Web. 06 Mar. 2014.

    "Civil War Museum - Gettysburg and Antietam Battlefield." Civil War Museum - Gettysburg and Antietam Battlefield. National Museum of Civil War Medicine, n.d. Web. 06 Mar. 2014.

    Civil War in Art. Terra Foundation for American Art, 2012. Web. 9 Mar. 2014.

    This site showcased many Civil War art exhibits. Many pictures of slaves and plantations are illustrated. These pictures give a much more visual understanding of slavery than an article would give.

    "Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)." Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC). Web. 02 June 2014.

    Explains how the CCC was founded and how it stimulated the work force after an increase in unemployment due to the Great Depression.

    Clare, John D. "Causes of the Cold War." Web. 3 Jun. 2014.

    Clare covers the different causes of the war, such as ideological reasons and aims.

    Clark, Jane. "Jamestown Looks to Past and the Future" The Present is Unearthing 400 Years of History." USA Today (12 May 2006), Final: Life D.5. ProQuest Newstand. Web. 6 Feb. 2015.

    Cleveland, Harland. "The Cold War: An Eyewitness Perspective." National archives. 21 October 2006. Web. 1 Jun. 2014.

    This article gave some U.S. context during the Cold War.

    Cole, Donald B. "Review of Burstein, Andrew, The Passions of Andrew Jackson." H-Tennessee, H-Net Reviews. June, 2003.

    Many facts about Jackson's life, presidency, etc. although it was a book review, it still had some information that I was about to use for my topic.

    "Columbus Controversy." History.com. The History Channel, 2009. Web. 4 Mar. 2014.

    This source reviewed common misconceptions about Christopher Columbus.

    "Columbus Taking Possession of the New Country: 1893." IEG-EGO: European History Online. Ed. Irine Dingel and Johannes Paulmann. IEG-EGO, n.d. Web. 4 Mar. 2014.

    This document provided a detailed image of the painting, "Columbus Taking Possession of the New Country" and provided some background information.

    Commons, John R. History of Labor in the United States. Vol. II. New York: Macmillan, 1940. Print.

    Commons, John Rogers, Don D. Lescohier, and Elizabeth Brandeis. History of Labor in the United States: 1896-1932. New York: A. M. Kelley, 1966. Print.

    "Containment and the Marshall Plan." U.S. History. Web. 30 May 2014.

    This article explains the concept of containment in the United States.

    Cooper, Allen. "9 Iconic Quotes from Pearl Harbor, World War II." USA Today. 7 Dec. 2013. Web. 5 June 2014.

    Coren, Michael. "The Truth about the Crusades." National Post: A27. May 05 2005. ProQuest.Web. 24 Feb. 2015.

    Cosgrove, Ben. After Pearl Harbor: Rare Photos From the American Home Front.: LIFE. Web. 18 May 2014.

    This site has photos from the attack at Pearl Harbor and discusses the aftermath of it all.

    Covey, Herbert C., and Dwight Eisnach. What the Slaves Ate. Santa Barbara: Greenwood Press, 2009. Print.

    This book focuses specifically on the foods and foodways from slave narratives, giving us an idea of what the slaves ate.

    Cracknell, Kenneth, and Susan J. White. An Introduction to World Methodism. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2005. N. pag. Print.

    Crash Course. "The Crusades-Pilgrimage or Holy War?: Crash Course World History #15." On-line Video. YouTube. YouTube. 3 May 2012. Web. 5 Feb. 2015.

    Crash Course. "The Vikings! - Crash Course World History 224." Online video. YouTube. YouTube. 4 Feb. 2015. Web. 8 Feb. 2015.

    Cromie, William J. "How Darwin's finches got their beaks." Harvard University Gazette. N.p., 2006. Web. 3 June 2014. .

    Finches were a huge factor in Darwin's findings, so getting background information on finches was helpful.

    Crosby, Alfred W. The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1972. Print.

    Crosby, Alfred W. Awcrosby.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Mar. 2014.

    The CW 50 TV Now. The CW 50, n.d. Web. 08 Feb. 2015.

    Cunningham, Richard B. C.S. Lewis: Defender of the Faith. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, n.d. Print.





In 1698, as part of his effort to modernize Russia by making it more European, Emperor Peter I of Russia imposed a tax on beards. Men who paid the tax were issued a token such as this one from 1705.