Works Consulted

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    Hacker, Andrew. Two Nations, Black and White, Separate, Hostile, Unequal. New York, NY: Scribner, 1992. Print.

    This book talks about the inequality and racism in America. What it's like being black in America and what white people think about certain subjects.

    Hacker, Jeffrey H. Slavery, War, and a New Birth of Freedom, 1840s-1877. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.

    Hahn, Steven. The Political Worlds of Slavery and Freedom. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2009. Print.

    Harding Davis, Rebeccca. Life in the Iron Mills. Google Books. Open Road Media, 2014, 2014. Web. 12 Feb. 2015.

    Hardman, John. "The Great Depression and the New Deal." The Great Depression and the New Deal. Web. 08 August 2015.

    Gives an overview of the Great Depression and the New Deal laws that were enacted by FDR and how they impacted Americans. Also gives an insight on blacks during the Great Depression and how they were treated.

    Harper, Douglas. Slave North. Slavery in the North, 2003. Web. 11 Mar. 2014.

    Although this site does not specifically talk about southern slavery, it does provide some decent insight of slavery in the North. An understanding of northern slavery is ideal in our understanding of slavery in general.

    Harris, Beth and Steven Zucker. "1700-1800 Age of Enlightenment." Smarthistory. Khan Academy, 2005. Web. 1 June 2014.

    Finding this source allowed me to get more background information on the Enlightenment, before I went on to look up Charles Darwin.

    Hashaw, Tim. The Birth of Black America: The First African Americans and the Pursuit of Freedom at Jamestown. Carroll and Graf Publishers, 2007. Print.

    Haven, Kendall F. 100 Greatest Science Inventions of All Time. Westport, Conn.: Libraries Unlimited, 2006. Print.

    Helm, Gary. "Life of Civil War Soldier in Camp." Civil War Trust, n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2014.

    Huey Lois. American Archaeology: Uncovers the Earliest English Colonies. New York: Canvendish Marshall,2009.Google book Search. Web. 8 Feb. 2015

    Hewes, Leslie. "Early Fencing On The Western Margin Of The Prairie." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 499-527. Web. 3 Feb. 2015.

    Hewitt, Nancy A., Lawson, Steven F. Exploring American Histories. St. Martins, New York: 2013. Print.

    Heywood, Colin. A History of Childhood: Children and Childhood in the West from Medieval to Modern Times. Oxford: Wiley, 2013. Print.

    Hibbert, Christopher. Wolfe at Quebec. Cleveland: World Pub., 1959. Print.

    "Hickey, Donald R., and Connie D. Clark. The Rockets Red Glare: An Illustrated History of the War of 1812. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2011. Print.

    "Hidden Histories: Childhood." YouTube. YouTube, 23 Mar. 2013 Web. 20 Feb. 2015.

    Higginbotham, Peter. "The Workhouse." Entering and Leaving the Workhouse. Peter Higginbothom, 2011. Web. 03 Feb. 2015. .

    Hillstromm, Kevin. Catalogue of the Private Library of John H. Childe, Boston, Mass., Together with Other Consignments. Boston, MA: C.F. Libbie, 1919. Print.

    Hindman, Hugh D. Child Labor. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 2002. Print.

    Hirst, K. Kris. "Vinland — The Viking Homeland in America." About Education, 2015. Web. 27 Feb. 2015.

    "The Hispanic and Portuguese World." Library of Congress: An Illustrated Guide. N.p., 15 July 2010. Web. 2 Feb. 2014.

    This source analyzed the relationship of Spain and Portugal during the Age of Discovery.

    "History of African American language in the U.S." History of Slaves. Web.

    This article talks about the formation and origin of the language the slaves would have used and the different dialects, such as Pidgin and Creole.

    "History of Childhood - UMass Lowell Professor Christopher Carlsmith (9:10)." YouTube. YouTube, 30 Dec. 2013 Web. 20 Feb. 2015.

    "History of French Colonial America." N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Mar. 2014.

    This website gives a brief overview of French Colonial history from the discover of the St. Lawrence River to the end the French empire in continental America.

    "History of the Department of the Navy." History of the Department of the Navy. Web. 13 Feb. 2014.

    This website provides historical information on the formation of the United States Navy.

    @HistoryGems. "The Crusades in 5 Minutes." On-line Video. YouTube. YouTube. 15 Nov. 2013. Web. 5 Feb. 2015.

    "HMS Beagle Voyage." AboutDarwin. Ed. David Leff. N.p., 10 Feb. 2008. Web. 3 June 2014.

    This particular article was about Darwin's voyage and helped me understand the voyage.

    Hobbs, Sandy, Michael Lavalette, and Jim MacKechnie. Child Labor: A World History Companion. Santa Barbara, Calif. [u.a.: ABC-CLIO, 1999. Print.

    Hoffman, David E. "The Dead Hand." DoubleDay Publishing, 2009. Print.

    This book covers the major events of the nuclear arms race.

    Holand, Hjalmar R. Explorations in America Before Columbus. New York City: Twayne Publisher, Inc., 1958. Print.

    Hollowell, Melvin, Jr. "Memories: Detroit Almost Slave City in 1800s; Became Underground Railroad Mecca Instead." ProQuest. Michigan Chronicle, 03 Feb. 1999. Web. 09 Feb. 2015.

    Holt, Edwin P. Japan's War: The Great Pacific Conflict. New York: Cooper Square Press, 2001. Print.

    This book focused on Japans journey and it's pursuit of destiny and the lessons that can be learned from the past.

    "Homo Neanderthalensis." Homo Neanderthalensis. Smithsonian Institution, n.d. Web. 1 Mar. 2014.

    Hoppe, Michelle J. "Transportation in the 19th Century." Transportation in the 19th Century. N.p., 2001. Web. 25 Feb. 2015.

    "Horrible Experiences Slaves Endured in the 1800s." History Engine. Richmond University, n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2014.

    This article shows that slave life was equally terrible for men and women. They would work the same number of hours, but men would get the more labor-intensive tasks.

    "Horrible Histories - Victorian Work Song." YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2015.

    Horton, James Oliver, and Lois E. Horton. Slavery and the Making of America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. Print.

    This richly illustrated book present the human side of slavery through stories of slaves themselves. It highlights the struggles slaves went through.

    Hosking, Richard. "'Please, Sir, I Want Some More' Feeding of Children in Workhouses in the 19th century." Nurture: Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery, 2003. Bristol: Footwork, 2004. 12-26. Print.

    Houston, R. A. "Literacy." Global Issues in Context. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Feb. 2014.

    This source discussed literacy in Europe starting in the Age of Discovery and tracking its development through time, and discerns reasons for the way it has spread.

    How to Reduce Factory Costs: A Factory Manager's Note-book of Cost Cutting Experiences. Chicago: System, 1909. Google Books. 26 Sept. 2007. Web. 09 Feb. 2015.

    Howe, Daniel Walker. What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815-1848. New York: Oxford UP, 2007. Print.

    This book my not have been all about Jackson, but the few chapters that it had, were filled with vital information about his views and presidency. This book is by far my favorite so far on my lighting topic! It's an easy read that is not dry and boring like most of the other novels that I've read so far.

    Hughes Math. "Barb Wire History and How the West was Lost." On-Line Video. YouTube. YouTube. 31 May 2013. Web.

    Hull, David L. Darwin and his Critics The Reception of Darwin's Theory of Evolution by the Scientific Community. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1973. Print.

    This book was used to give me a better understanding of where Darwin came from and how his theory changed evolution.

    Humphreys, Margaret. Marrow of Tragedy: The Health Crisis of the American Civil War. Baltimore: John Hopkins UP, 2013. Print.

    Hyde, Charles K. Aresenal of Democracy. Detroit: Wayne State UP Detroit, 2013. Print.





Cranial surgery has been performed since at least 6500 BCE. This girl's skull from 3500 BCE has new bony tissue which indicates that the girl survived her surgery.

Photo Credit: Rama