Works Consulted

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    Rael, Richard. "Civil Rights Movement: In the 60s, a Struggle for Equality in the US." Many Things. Web.

    This article gave good information about how life was for a black American in the 1960s. It gave information about the Civil Rights movement and different problems such as the segregation of schools.

    Ramos, Karina. "Barb Wire Documentary." On-Line Video. YouTube. YouTube. 3 Feb 2013. Web.

    Ranta, Judith. "The Lowell Offering Index." The University of Michigan Library. N.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015.

    Razac, Olivier. Barbed Wire: A Political History. New York: New, 2002. Print.

    "Reaching Out to Freedom, The History of Second Baptist Church of Detroit: Historical Significance of Detroit." ProQuest. Michigan Chronicle, 09 Feb. 2011. Web. 09 Feb. 2015.

    Real Footage - Atomic Bomb- Hiroshima and Nagasaki. YouTube, 2011. Web. 1 June 2014.

    A link to footage of both of the bombings in Japan, Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    Regal, Brian. Human Evolution: A Guide to the Debates. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2004. Print

    Reilly, Kevin. Worlds Of History. 5th ed. Vol. 2. Boston: Bedford/St. Matrins, 2004. Print.

    This book talked about President Truman making the announcement about the bomb droppings and the details of them.

    Rein,Lisa. "The Washington Post: Mystery of VA's First Slave Unlocked 400 Years Later." The Washington Post. 3 Sept 2006. Non Profit. Journal. Web. 26 Jan. 2015.

    Remini, Robert V. Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Democracy, 1833-1845. Vol. 3. New York, NY: Harper and Row, 1984. Print.

    This book had six different chapters in which I used (1, 4, 7, 11, 13, and 22), most of which regarding to Jacksonians, the bank, and there form of democracy.

    Remini, Robert V. Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Empire, 1767-1821. New York: Harper and Row, 1977. Print.

    This book was mainly about Jackson prior to him becoming President. A lot of information about his early life, his duel, his nickname of "Old Hickory" and some brief information about him becoming President.

    Rensberger, Boyce. "Leg of Frog, Muscle of Rabbit and A Beaker of ATP." The Washington Post. Jan 11 1995. ProQuest. Web. Feb. 9, 2015.

    Reps, John William. The Making of Urban America: A History of City Planning in the United States. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1965. Print.

    George Washington decided to entrust the monumental task of creating a plan for this new city to Pierre Charles L'Enfant.

    "Result Filters." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 13 Mar. 2014.

    Ringwalt, John L. "Development of Transportation Systems in the United States." Google Books. Railroad World Office, n.d. Web. 05 Feb. 2015.

    Roark, Johnson, Cohen, Stage, Lawson, Hartmann. Understanding the American Promise. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2011. Print.

    This is a history textbook, which included information about slavery in the nineteenth century.

    Robinson, Harriet Hanson. "The Lowell Mill Girls Go on Strike, 1836." History Matters. 1898. Web. 23 Mar. 2015.

    Rodrigue, Jean-Paul. "Historical Geography of Transportation: The Emergence of Mechanized Systems." Historical Geography of Transportation: The Emergence of Mechanized Systems. Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, 2015. Web. 19 Feb. 2015.

    Roosevelt, Franklin D. "Fireside Chat on the Purposes and Foundations of the Recovery Program, 07/24/1933." Fireside Chat on the Purposes and Foundations of the Recovery Program, 07/24/1933. Web. 08 August 2015.

    Actual manuscript of FDR's fireside chat given to Americans on 7/24/1933 explaining the purposes and foundations of the Recovery Program.

    Roosevelt, Franklin D. "Franklin D. Roosevelt's Infamy Speech." US Historical Documents. The University of Oklahoma, 9 Mar. 2006. Web. 5 June 2014.

    Roosevelt, Franklin D., and B. D. Zevin. Nothing to Fear: The Selected Addresses of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 1932-1945. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1946. Print.

    Composition of FDR's scripts from all of his fireside chats. Shows readers how FDR was a good public speaker and how he could captivate an audience.

    Rose, Willie Lee. A Documentary of History: Slavery in North America. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1999. Print.

    This book is about people's petition against and opinion of slavery.

    Rose, Willie Lee. History of Slavery in North America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976. Print.

    This book is supposed to be a novel form of a documentary on the slavery in North America. As such, it is very informative and contains a multitude of information I found very useful to my research.

    Rosie, Geiger "How Sherlock Changed the World." PBS: Detroit Public Television.

    Rosner, Lisa, and John Theibault. A Short History of Europe, 1600-1815: Search for a Reasonable World. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2000. Print.

    Rowe, Chip. "5 Medical Innovations of the Civil War." Mental Floss. Mental Floss, 28 July 2012. Web. 05 Mar. 2014.

    Roxworthy, Emily. "Blackface Behind Barbed Wire: Gender and Racial Triangulation in the Japanese American Internment Camps." TDR/The Drama Review. 123-42. Web. 3 Feb. 2015.

    Roy, Denny. The Pacific War and Its Political Legacies. Westport: Praeger Publishers, 2009. Print.

    This book includes views and responses from multiple countries involved in the war and explains it's interpretations.

    Runciman, Steven. A History of the Crusades: Volume one The First Crusade and Formation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. London: The syndics of the Cambridge University Press, 1957. Google Book Search. Web. 7 Feb. 2015.

    Ruse, Michael. Monad to Man The Concept of Progress in Evolutionary Biology. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1996. Print.

    This allowed me to see how evolution changed biology.

    Ruse, Michael. The Darwinian Revolution Science Red in Tooth and Claw. 2nd ed. Chicago And London: The University of Chicago Press, 1999. Print.

    The book allowed me to see further into Darwin and what people called, "The Darwinian Revolution." It was very informative.

    Ruse, Michael. The Evolution Wars A Guide to the Debates. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2010. Print.

    I used this book to gain more information on Evolution.

    Rushton, J. Philippe. Race, Evolution, and Behavior: A Life History Perspective. New Brunswick, NJ, USA: Transaction, 1995. Print.

    Russ, Ouellette. "On Sherlock Holmes." Talking Tobacco. May 3, 2012.

    Rutgers University. "Research/Publications." American Political History. The State University of New Jersey, 1995-2014. Web. 05 June 2014.

    Rybczynski, Witold. City Life: Urban Expectations in a New World. New York: Scribner, 1995. Print.

    Washington D.C. was the first example in the U.S. of a city planned by a trained professional. The plan effectively combined European and American ideas of planning.

    Ryne, Linn. "Leif Ericson." Great Norwegians, 1995 . Web. 27 Jan. 2015.





On 17 May 1886, Alfonso XIII was crowned King of Spain on the day of his birth. His father, Alfonso XII had died 25 November 1885.

Photo Caption: Kaulak