Works Consulted

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    VanDevelder, Paul. Savages and Scoundrels: The Untold Story of America's Road Empire Trough Indian Territory. New Haven: Yale UP, 2009. Print.

    I chose to use this book because it offers a lot of information on the ideas and philosophy of our people and government towards the natives during the expansion. It has a couple brief passages that really give an idea of the attitudes of the time towards Natives. The book does a good job of tying together modern events to the other historical events in the described but most of that information does not seem like it will be useful to me for this discussion.

    Van Roon, Hans. 2014. "Mongols China and The Silk Road." 2 Feb. 2014.

    This blog discusses these Barbarians involvement with and against the silk roads and what went on in China during this period.

    Velasco. "Columbian Exchange - St. Johns Country Day School Heinrich Learning Resource Center." St. Johns Country Day School Heinrich Learning Resource Center. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Mar. 2014.

    Vidmar, John. 101 Questions on the Crusades and the Inquiusition: Disputed Questions. Mahwah: Paulist, 2013. Print.

    Vogal, Steve. Through the Perilous Fight. New York: Random House, 2013. Print.

    Volo, James M, and Dorothy D. Volo. Family Life in 19th-Century America. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2007. Print.

    Voorhies, James. "Europe and the Age of Exploration." The Metropolitan Museum of Art. N.p., Oct. 2002. Web. 1 Feb. 2014.

    This source gave a general background about the Age of Exploration and the works completed in this time. It also game several examples of individual pieces/articles of clothing from the time period.





Arabic numerals were actually invented by the Indians around 500 CE. The numbering system was popularized in Arabia around 750 CE when al-Khwârizmî published a book on the system. The numbering system was not adapted in Europe about 1100. One of the important advances with Indian numbers was the adoption of zero as a number.

Photo Caption: A page from al-Khwârizmî's al-Kitâb al-mukhtas.ar fi h.isâb al-jabr wa-l-muqâbala.