Chapter 1:
Chapter 2:
World War I
Chapter 3:
Communism and Fascism
Chapter 4:
Chapter 5:
Chapter 6:
World War II
Chapter 7:
1940s - 1960s
Chapter 8:
1970s - 1980s
Chapter 9:
Chapter 10:
21st Century

The Boxer Rebellion

Sean Conway
The primary author is the individual who drafted the first version of this section; a section that could have been modified since it was originally published.

Qing Dynasty

Before we can fully dive into the Boxer Rebellion, we must be aware of the time period. From 1616 until 1909 the Qing Dynasty ruled China. There were twelve different rulers during the course of the dynasty. As the Boxer Rebellion was taking place around 1900, China was ruled by Emperor Guangxu. Emperor Guangxu strongly disagreed with compromise and preferred to settle things over battle. He greatly contributed to the many altercations that China had from the late 1800s into the early 1900s.

Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists

The Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists was a group of people who did everything they could to get foreigners and Chinese Christians out of China. They would go around killing foreigners and destroying foreign property. The people became known as "Boxers" because they would perform special rituals that were thought to make them invincible. The Boxers thought that through these special rituals, they would be able to withstand bullets. From June to August in 1900, the Boxers besieged the foreign district of Peking (now called Bejing), China's capital, until an international force that included American troops subdued the uprising.

Chinese Christians

Christianity in China was a big part of what started the Boxer uprising. Many of these Christians were bandits located in Shandong, China. Christians were largely looked at as foreigners because they would try and spread their own beliefs. The Christians spreading their own beliefs lead to the Boxers grouping them in with other foreign people. Many of these Christians were killed during the time of the boxer rebellion.

Boxer Rebellion

The Boxer Rebellion can also be referred to as the Boxer Uprising. The Boxers were mainly protesting against Christian missionaries and foreigners. In 1900, the Boxer movement spread to the Peking area, where the Boxers killed Chinese Christians and Christian missionaries. Churches, railroad stations, and other property were destroyed by the Boxers. On 21 June 1900, one day after the Boxers began their siege of Peking, the Qing dynasty declared war on all countries that had had diplomatic ties in China. A force consisting of 20,000 troops from eight different nations was assembled to put a stop to the Boxers.

Boxer Protocol

The Boxer Rebellion officially ended with the signing of the Boxer Protocol on 7 September 1901 which prohibited China from importing arms for two years. The Chinese were also forced to agree to pay reparations in excess of $330 million. The Boxer Rebellion greatly weakened the Qing dynasty and China became a republic nation in 1912.

Works Consulted

"БОКСЕРСКОЕ ВОССТАНИЕ — Древо" N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2014.

I used this website as a non English source. It shows views from a Russian perspective.

"A Prisoner of the Boxer Rebellion, 1900." A Prisoner of the Boxer Rebellion, 1900. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Sept. 2014.

This website shows a detailed account of one of the prisoners. It gave me a great perspective on the whole thing.

Boxer, Marilyn J., and Jean H. Quataert. Connecting Spheres: European Women in a Globalizing World, 1500 to the Present. New York: Oxford UP, 2000. Print.

This book helped me get a feel for Europe and the relations that all the countries had.

"Boxer Rebellion." A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 18 Sept. 2014.

This website was kind of an overview for the whole thing. Shows the beginning middle and the end.

"China on Course to Become 'world's Most Christian Nation' within 15 Years." The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group, 19 Apr. 2014. Web. 13 Oct. 2014.

I used this site to show how China is set to become on the most Christian countries.

"Chinese History - Qing Period." Chinese History - Qing Period ( . N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2014.

This site was very helpful when gathering info about the Qing period in China.

Cohen, Paul A. History in Three Keys: The Boxers as Event, Experience, and Myth. New York: Columbia UP, 1997. Print.

This book shows how Mr Paul Cohen views the event. He tries to show some of the myths that started.

Eskridge-Kosmach, Alena N. "Russia in the Boxer Rebellion." The Journal of Slavic Military Studies 21.1 (2008): 38-52. Web.

This was a Schoolcraft library source. It was helpful to me when trying to find out how Russia responded to the boxers.

Fairbank, John King. The Great Chinese Revolution: 1800 - 1985. New York: Harper & Row, 1986. Print.

This book helped showed me the events leading up to the Boxer Rebellion and how it started.

Glatfelter, Ralph Edward. Russia in China the Russian Reaction to the Boxer Rebellion. N.p.: n.p., 1975. Print.

This book really showed me how Russia reacted to the Boxer Rebellion.

Pumphrey, Carolyn W. The Rise of China in Asia: Security Implications. Google Books Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2002. Web. 22 Sept. 2014.

I used this Google book to show how the rise of China changed all of Asia. The boxer rebellion helped show the rest of Asia that China was a world power now.

"Prologue: Selected Articles." National Archives and Records Administration. National Archives and Records Administration, n.d. Web. 18 Sept. 2014.

This website showed how the United States got involved in the issues with the Boxer rebellion.

"The Qing Dynasty." ChinaHighlights. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2014.

This site helped show me why the Qing dynasty came to a close.

Sebring, Ellin. "World on the Head of a Pin: Visualizing Micro and Macro Points of View in China's Boxer War of 1900." Ebcohost. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2014.

I used the Schoolcraft library website to find this journal. It was helpful to me in viewing how the rest of the world viewed the rebellion.

"The Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists - Philosophy for Life - Official Website of Author Jules Evans." Philosophy for Life Official Website of Author Jules Evans The Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists Comments. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2014.

I used this website to show how and why the Boxers were created.

Wright, Mary Clabaugh. China in Revolution: The First Phase, 1900-1913. New Haven: Yale UP, 1968. Print.

I used this book to show me about the way China was in the early 1900s. It has some great information on the Boxers.

Chinese Boxer